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with
sql1 as (select to_char(a) s_name from test_tempa),
R ]F5^5"KFW0n 重庆快三平台app—主页-彩经_彩喜欢0sql2 as (select to_char(b) s_name from test_tempb where not exists (select s_name from sql1 where rownum=1))
select * from sql1ITPU重庆快三平台app—主页-彩经_彩喜欢个人空间2g N*` O3y2e重庆快三平台app—主页-彩经_彩喜欢 Q6}
union all
select * from sql2
union all
select 'no records' from dual
       where not exists (select s_name from sql1 where rownum=1)
       and not exists (select s_name from sql2 where rownum=1);

再举个简单的例子

with a as (select * from test)

select * from a;

其实就是把一大堆重复用到的SQL语句放在with as 里面,取一个别名,后面的查询就可以用它

这样对于大批量的SQL语句起到一个优化的作用,而且清楚明了


这是搜索到的英文文档资料(说得比较全,但是本人英文特菜,还没具体了解到,希望各高手具体谈谈这个with
as 的好处)

About Oracle WITH clause
Starting in Oracle9i release 2 we see an incorporation of the SQL-99 “WITH clause”, a tool for materializing subqueries to save Oracle from having to re-compute them multiple times.

The SQL “WITH clause” is very similar to the use of Global temporary tables (GTT), a technique that is often used to improve query speed for complex subqueries. Here are some important notes about the Oracle “WITH clause”:

   • The SQL “WITH clause” only works on Oracle 9i release 2 and beyond.
   • Formally, the “WITH clause” is called subquery factoring
   • The SQL “WITH clause” is used when a subquery is executed multiple times
   • Also useful for recursive queries (SQL-99, but not Oracle SQL)

To keep it simple, the following example only references the aggregations once, where the SQL “WITH clause” is normally used when an aggregation is referenced multiple times in a query.
We can also use the SQL-99 “WITH clause” instead of temporary tables. The Oracle SQL “WITH clause” will compute the aggregation once, give it a name, and allow us to reference it (maybe multiple times), later in the query.

The SQL-99 “WITH clause” is very confusing at first because the SQL statement does not begin with the word SELECT. Instead, we use the “WITH clause” to start our SQL query, defining the aggregations, which can then be named in the main query as if they were “real” tables:

WITH
subquery_name
AS
(the aggregation SQL statement)
SELECT
(query naming subquery_name);


Retuning to our oversimplified example, let’s replace the temporary tables with the SQL “WITH  clause”:

WITH
sum_sales AS
  select /*+ materialize */
    sum(quantity) all_sales from stores
number_stores AS
  select /*+ materialize */
    count(*) nbr_stores from stores
sales_by_store AS
  select /*+ materialize */
  store_name, sum(quantity) store_sales from
  store natural join sales
SELECT
   store_name
FROM
   store,
   sum_sales,
   number_stores,
   sales_by_store
where
   store_sales > (all_sales / nbr_stores)
;


Note the use of the Oracle undocumented “materialize” hint in the “WITH clause”. The Oracle materialize hint is used to ensure that the Oracle cost-based optimizer materializes the temporary tables that are created inside the “WITH” clause. This is not necessary in Oracle10g, but it helps ensure that the tables are only created one time.

It should be noted that the “WITH clause” does not yet fully-functional within Oracle SQL and it does not yet support the use of “WITH clause” replacement for “CONNECT 重庆快三平台app—主页-彩经_彩喜欢Y” when performing recursive queries.

To see how the “WITH clause” is used in ANSI SQL-99 syntax, here is an excerpt from Jonathan Gennick’s great work “Understanding the WITH Clause” showing the use of the SQL-99 “WITH clause” to traverse a recursive bill-of-materials hierarchy

The SQL-99 “WITH clause” is very confusing at first because the SQL statement does not begin with the word SELECT. Instead, we use the “WITH clause” to start our SQL query, defining the aggregations, which can then be named in the main query as if they were “real” tables:

WITH
subquery_name
AS
(the aggregation SQL statement)
SELECT
(query naming subquery_name);


Retuning to our oversimplified example, let’s replace the temporary tables with the SQL “WITH” clause”:

另一个例子:
with tempDeptName(deptName) as
(
      select
             dept_name as deptName
     from
             bas_dept as dept,tpp_materialmuster as muster
     where
             dept.DEPT_ID = muster.NEEDUNIT
           
     union all
     
     select
             corp_name as deptName
     from
              bas_corp as corp,tpp_materialmuster as muster
     where
             corp.corp_id = muster.NEEDUNIT
           
),
tempProjInfo(projName, projCode) as
(
      select
             etfprojName as projName,
            etfprojCode as projCode
     from
             tbi_etfproj as etf, tpp_materialMuster as muster
     where
             etf.etfprojid = muster.projid
           
     union all
     
     select
             etmprojName as projName,
            etmprojCode as projCode
     from
              tbi_etmproj as etm, tpp_materialMuster as muster
     where
               etm.etmprojId = muster.projid
)

select
                   deptname,
                   projname,
                   projcode
      from     tpp_materialmuster as muster,tempDeptName,tempProjInfo
posted on 2009-11-12 11:12 seal 阅读(7459) 评论(0)  编辑  收藏 所属分类: 数据库

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